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Physics Topics

CONTENTS

1 PHYSICS OF VIBRATIONS

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

1.3 Differential Equation of a Simple Harmonic Oscillator and its Solution

1.4 Potential and Kinetic Energies in Simple Harmonic Motion

1.5 Equation of Motion from Principle of Energy Conservation

1.6 Applications of Simple Harmonic Motion

1.7 Damped Harmonic Oscillator

1.8 Forced or Driven Harmonic Oscillator

1.9 Difference between Mechanical Wave and Electromagnetic Wave

1.10 Numerical Problems Based on Physics of Vibrations

Exercises 

Suggestion for Further Reading 

 

2 PROGRESSIVE WAVES

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Properties of Longitudinal Progressive Waves

2.3 Expression for Plane Progressive Harmonic Wave

2.4 Particle Velocity and Wave Velocity

2.5 Differential Equation of Wave Motion

2.6 Variation of Velocity and Pressure in a Progressive Wave

2.7 Energy of a Plane Progressive Wave

2.8 Superposition of Progressive Waves: Stationary Wave

2.9 Distinction between Progressive and Stationary Waves

2.10 Numericals Based on Progressive Waves

Exercises

 

3 ULTRASONICS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Generation/Production of Ultrasonic Waves

3.3 Detection of Ultrasonic Waves

3.4 Numericals Based on Ultrasonics

Exercises

 

4 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Principle of Superposition

4.3 Coherent Sources

4.4 Analytical Theory of Interference

4.5 Condition for Sustained Interference

4.6 Effect of Introducing a Thin Transparent Plate in the Path of One Way 

4.7 Two Classes of Interference

4.8 Fresnel Biprism

4.9 Interference in Thin Films

4.10 Newton’s Fringes and Haidinger Fringes

4.11 Numericals Based on Interference of Light

Exercises


5 DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Fresnel’s Theory of Diffraction

5.3 Half Period Zones of Plane Wave

5.4 Zone Plate

5.5 Explanation of Rectilinear Propagation of Light

5.6 Resultant of n Harmonic Waves

5.7 Fraunhofer Diffraction at a Single Slit

5.8 A Plane Transmission Diffraction Grating (N-Slits Diffraction)

5.9 Resolving Power of Optical Instruments

5.10 Resolving Power of Plane Diffraction Grating

5.11 Relation between Resolving Power and Dispersive Power of a Grating

5.12 Numerical Problems Based on Diffraction of Light

Exercises

 

6 POLARIZATION OF LIGHT 

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Ordinary or Unpolarised Light

6:3 Plane Polarised Light

6.4 Plane of Polarisation and Plane of Vibration

6.5 Different Methods for Production of Polarised Light

6.6 Production of Polarised Light of Double Refraction

6.7 Nicol Prism

6.8 Theory for Production of Circularly and Elliptically Polarised Light

6.9 Retardation Plate : Quarter and Half Wave Plate

6.10 Production of Plane, Circular and Elliptical Polarised Light

6.11 Detection of Plane, Circularly and Elliptically Polarised Light

6.12 Optical Rotation

6.13 Polarimeter

6.14 Relative Merits of Half Shade and Biquartz Polarimeter

6.15 Numerical Problems Based on Polarisation of Light

Exercises

 

7 ELECTROMAGNETISM 

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Scalar and Vector Fields

7.3 Gradient of a Scalar Field

7.4 Equipotential Surfaces

7.5 Divergence of a Vector Field

7.6 The Curl of a Vector Field

7.7 Important Conclusions on the Basis of Gradient, Divergence and Curl

7.8 Line, Surface and Volume Integrals

7.9 Gauss Divergence Theorem

7.10 Stoke’s Curl Theorem

7.11 Electric Flux

7.12 Gauss’s Law of Electrostatics

7.13 Ampere’s Law

7.14 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

7.15 Displacement Current

7.16 Maxwell’s Equations

7.17 Physical Significance of Maxwell’s Equations

7.18 Maxwell’s Equation in Free Space and Isotropic Media: Integral and Differential Forms

7.19 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Free Space

7.20 Poynting Theorem-(Energy of Electromagnetic Field)

7.21 Law of Conservation of Energy for E.M. Field

7.22 Fundamental Concepts of Electromagnetism

7.23 Numerical Problems Based on Electromagnetism

Exercises

 

8 SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Frames of Reference

8.3 Galilean Transformation

8.4 Michelson-Morley Experiment

8.5 Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity

8.6 Lorentz Transformation

8.7 Length Contraction

8.8 Time Dilation

8.9 Addition of Velocities

8.10 Variation of Mass with Velocity

8.11 Equivalence of Mass and Energy

8.12 Numerical Problems Based on Special Theory of Relativity

Exercises

 

9 WAVE MECHANICS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 de Broglie Waves or Matter Waves

9.3 Experimental Verification of Wave-particle Dualism: Davisson and Germer Experiment

9.4 1 Phase and Group Velocities of the de Broglie Wave

9.5 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

9.6 Wave Function and its Physical Interpretation

9.7 Operators

9.8 Expectation Values of Dynamical Quantities

9.9 The Schrodinger Wave Equation

9.10 Numerical Problems Based on Wave Mechanics

Exercises

Suggestion for Further Reading

 

10 ATOMIC PHYSICS

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Earlier Atomic Models and Their Shortcomings

10.3 Vector Atom Model

10.4 Spin-orbit Coupling

10.5 Zeeman Effect

10.6 Paschen Back Effect

10.7 X-rays

10.8 Lasers

10.9 Numerical Problems Based on Atomic Physics

Exercises

Suggestion for Further Reading

 

11 SOUD STATE PHYSICS

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Sommerfeld’s Free Electron Theory of Metals

11.3 Periodic Potential in Crystalline Solid

11.4 Bloch Theorem

11.5 Kronig-Penney Model (Qualitative)

11.6 Band Theory of Solids

11.7 Photoconductivity

11.8 Photovoltaics

11.9 Superconductivity

11.10 Numerical Problems Based on Solid State Physics

Exercises

Suggestion for Further Reading

APPENDICES

PAPER

INDEX