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Maxwell’s Equation in Free Space and Isotropic Media: Integral and Differential Forms

(i)                 In Free Space: In absence of any free charges or currents or in the empty space i.e.,when q or p and i or J are zero. Then Maxwell’s equations take the form

(ii) In Isotropic Medium: In an isotropic dielectric (or non-conducting isotropic medium)

 

D =ε E , µ H ,J =σ E =0 and  p=0

 

Then Maxwell’s equations take the form