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In recent decade solid state physics has seen many dramatic new developments and has become one of the largest independent branches of physics. It has simultaneously expanded into many new areas, playing a vital role in fields that were once the domain of the engineering and chemical sciences. A consequence of this explosive development is that no single university lecturer can today be expected to have a detailed knowledge of all aspects of this vast subject: likewise, it is impossible to conceive that could offer students a comprehensive understanding of the entire discipline and its many applications. In this chapter of solid state physics, we will study base topics of this branch of physics like free electron theory of metals, band theory of solids, semiconductors, photoconductivity and photovoltaics and superconductivity.